Alcohol Knowledge Exchange
http://www.ncadd.org/– Alcohol is the number one drug of choice for America’s young people, and is more likely to kill young people than all illegal drugs combined.
– Each day, 7,000 kids in the United States under the age of 16 take their first drink.
– Those who begin drinking before age 15 are four times more likely to develop alcoholism than those who begin at age 21.
– More than 1,700 college students in the U.S. are killed each year—about 4.65 a day—as a result of alcohol-related injuries.
– 25% of U.S. children are exposed to alcohol-use disorders in their family.
– Underage alcohol use costs the nation an estimated $62 billion annually.
Texas School Survey – San Antonio, TX, 2012 (NISD)
Any Alcohol Use
Dangerous for Kids to Use Liquor
Drug/Alcohol Information from Someone Else at School
Watch the company you keep…
Case Closed: Research Evidence on the Positive Public Health Impact of the Age 21 Minimum Legal Drinking Age in the United States
by WILLIAM DEJONG, PH.D. AND JASON BLANCHETTE, M.P.H.
The age 21 law saves lives and is unlikely to be overturned. College and university leaders need to put into effect workable policies, stricter enforcement, and other evidence-based prevention efforts that have been demonstrated to reduce underage drinking and alcohol-related problems on campus and are being applied successfully at prominent academic institutions (J. Stud. Alcohol Drugs, Supplement 17, 108–115, 2014)Read more
Adults’ alcohol consumption behaviour and support for restrictions on Youth-Oriented alcohol advertisements
Sandina Begic*, Elsa K. M. Howard, Theodore W. McDonald
Abstract: Research suggests that underage drinking is a serious problem in the United States, and that many of the factors that influence minors to consume alcohol are environmental in their nature. One such factor is youth-oriented alcohol advertisements. Although many adults support restrictions on such advertisements, others do not or do so to a lesser degree. In this study, we explored one factor that may influence how strongly adults support restrictions on youth-oriented alcohol advertisements: The frequency with which adults themselves report consuming alcoholic beverages. A total of 767 adult Idahoans completed a survey asking about a variety of perceptions related to underage drinking, including whether they supported five types of restrictions on youth-oriented alcohol advertisement. They also answered a question about their own drinking behavior. The results revealed a significant effect of adults’ self-reported alcohol consumption behavior on their support for all five types of advertising restrictions.Read more
Bexar County DWI
|2013||2014||% to Date of 2013|
|5637||3275||58%||DWI 1st offense (which includes: DWI 1st, DWI open container, and DWI blood alcohol content .15 and greater)|
|1105||598||54%||DWI 2nd offense|
|703||400||57%||DWI 3rd offense, or more|
|152||70||46%||DWI with child passenger (younger than 15)|
|7649||4371||57%||Total DWI arrests, with blood draws in 3,364 of those cases|
|Source: http://www.bexar.org/da/dwi.html 05-21-2014|
Alcohol and Marijuana Use Patterns Associated With Unsafe Driving Among U.S. High School Seniors: High Use Frequency, Concurrent Use, and Simultaneous Use
YVONNE M. TERRY-MCELRATH, M.S.A., PATRICK M. O’MALLEY, PH.D., AND LLOYD D. JOHNSTON, PH.D.
ABSTRACT. Objective: This article examines non-causal associations between high school seniors’ alcohol and marijuana use status and rates of self-reported unsafe driving in the past 12 months. Method: Analyses used data from 72,053 students collected through annual surveys of nationally representative cross-sectional samples of U.S. 12th-grade students from 1976 to 2011. Two aspects of past-12-month alcohol and marijuana use were examined: (a) use frequency and (b) status as a nonuser, single substance user, concurrent user, or simultaneous user. Measures of past-12-month unsafe driving included any tickets/warnings or accidents, as well as tickets/warnings or accidents following alcohol or marijuana use. Analyses explored whether an individual’s substance use frequency and simultaneous use status had differential associations with their rate of unsafe driving.Read more
New Study Finds States with Stronger Alcohol Policies Have Less Binge Drinking
Dec 12, 2013
Issues: Binge Drinking
Drug type: Alcohol
According to a new study, a novel composite measure consisting of 29 alcohol policies demonstrates that a strong alcohol policy environment is a protective factor against binge drinking in the U.S. The study was led by researchers at the Boston University Schools of Medicine (BUSM) and Public Health and Boston Medical Center (BMC), and is published in the current issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
Binge drinking is a common and risky pattern of alcohol consumption that is responsible for more than half of the 80,000 alcohol-attributable deaths that occur each year in the United States. “If alcohol policies were a newly discovered gene, pill or vaccine, we’d be investing billions of dollars to bring them to market,” said Tim Naimi, MD, MPH, senior author of the study, and associate professor of medicine at BUSM and attending physician at BMC.Read more
Alcohol’s Effects on the Adolescent Brain—What Can Be Learned From Animal Models
by Susanne Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Ph.D., and H. Scott Swartzwelder, Ph.D.
Because of legal and ethical constraints on alcohol research in human adolescents, many studies of alcohol’s effects on the developing brain have been conducted in animal models, primarily rats and mice. The adolescent brain may be uniquely sensitive to alcohol’s effects because major changes in brain structure and function occur during this developmental period.
New Study Finds Just a Single Episode of Binge Drinking Can Cause Damage
May 22, 2014
Issues: Binge Drinking
Drug type: Alcohol
According to a new study funded by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), just a single alcohol binge can cause bacteria to leak from the gut, and increase levels of bacterial toxins in the blood. Earlier studies have tied chronic alcohol use to increased gut permeability, wherein potentially harmful products can travel through the intestinal wall and be carried to other parts of the body, but this study is the first to show that even a single binge event can have a similar effect.
Binge drinking is defined by NIAAA as a pattern of drinking alcohol that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to 0.08g/dL or above. For a typical adult, this pattern corresponds to consuming five or more drinks for men, or four or more drinks for women, in about two hours. In the study, 11 men and 14 women were given enough alcohol to raise their BAC to at least .08 g/dL within an hour.
Dr. Gyongyi Szabo, Professor and Vice Chair of Medicine and Associate Dean for Clinical and Translational Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Medical School who lead the study, said these findings are significant because it proves that drinking heavily even just once can have long-term impacts.Read more
ALCOHOL’S DAMAGING EFFECTS ON THE BRAIN
Drinking during pregnancy can lead to a range of physical, learning, and behavioral effects in the developing brain, the most serious of which is a collection of symptoms known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Children with FAS may have distinct facial features (see illustration). FAS infants also are markedly smaller than average. Their brains may have less volume (i.e., microencephaly). And they may have fewer numbers of brain cells (i.e., neurons) or fewer neurons that are able to function correctly, leading to long–term problems in learning and behavior.
Binge Drinking and Blackouts
Drinkers who experience blackouts typically drink too much and too quickly, which causes their blood alcohol levels to rise very rapidly. College students may be at particular risk for experiencing a blackout, as an alarming number of college students engage in binge drinking. Binge drinking, for a typical adult, is defined as consuming five or more drinks in about 2 hours for men, or four or more drinks for women.Source: Alcohol Research & Health, “Alcoholic Brain Damage” (Vol. 27, No. 2, 2003)
The following publication was from the Richmond Times-Dispatch. Click the image to read the full article.
Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers
When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs. This study used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward or adenosinergic effect as a consequence of drinking.Read more
Excise tax refers to an indirect type of taxation imposed on the manufacture, sale or use of certain types of goods and products. (Source: Google)Learn more
Ethanol enhances neurosteroidogenesis in hippocampal pyramidal neurons by paradoxical NMDA receptor activation.
Using an antibody against 5α-reduced neurosteroids, predominantly allopregnanolone, we found that immunostaining in the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices was confined to pyramidal neurons. This neurosteroid staining was increased following 15 min administration of 60 mm but not 20 mm ethanol, and the enhancement was blocked by finasteride and dutasteride, selective inhibitors of 5α-reductase, a key enzyme required for allopregnanolone synthesis.
Ethanol interrupts the brain’s ability to form memories.
|When you drink, does it take more or less to get you drunk than it used to?||Increasing or decreasing tolerance is a sign of alcohol dependency.|
|Do you ever drink or use more than you intended to?||This indicates loss of control over your use.|
|Do you always make sure you have a supply on hand?||Preoccupation with supply is a characteristic of alcohol dependency.|
|Do you have blackouts or brownouts – forget what you have done or said, or “lose time” after drinking?||Blackouts are indicative of alcohol overconsumption.|
|Do you ever drink or use drugs in the morning to reduce anxiety or cope with a hangover?||This indicates progression of alcohol dependency; hangovers may actually be the onset of withdrawal.|
|Do you ever find yourself wishing for a drink to calm down or steady yourself?||This indicates preoccupation and self medication, as well as progression of alcohol dependency, as what prompts this is often physical withdrawal symptoms.|
|Do you ever drink when taking prescription medications that advise against drinking alcohol?||This shows powerlessness over your drinking. It is also very dangerous.|
|Have you ever gone to work or school after drinking?||This indicates powerlessness and unmanageability in your life.|
|Do you have a history of relationships with alcoholics?||Codependent alcoholics often unconsciously find addicted partners – it allows them a smoke screen to hide behind. “I may drink or use, but I’m not like them.”|
|Do you find yourself using alcohol, drugs or sex to reduce anxiety or help you sleep?||Addicts medicate emotional pain, anxiety and fear. Benzodiazapine-based anti-anxiety drugs (Xanex, Valium, etc.) are highly addictive. Most sleeping medications are very addictive, and often have a paradoxical effect – making sleep disturbances worse with continued use.|
|When prescribed medication, do you take more than prescribed?||“If one is good then two is better” belief is at the center of addictive thinking.|
|Have friends, family or loved ones ever commented on or expressed concern about your use?||Addicts are usually the last to recognize their disease – denial is an automatic and unconscious component of alcohol dependency. If you insist that you don’t have a problem you probably do! If this makes you angry – ask yourself why?|
|Do you conceal your use from family, friends, therapists or loved ones, or “edit” stories involving your drinking?||Secretiveness, denial, and lies about use are characteristic of active addicts and alcoholics.|
|Do you ever drink alone?||Indicates you are not a “social” drinker. Also, isolation and a feeling of “being different” or “not fitting in” are a common personality trait of alcoholics.|
|Do you do or say things you later regret when drinking?||Impaired judgment caused by drinking indicates powerlessness over use. Behavioral changes when drinking are a sign of progression and loss of control.|
|Have you ever driven drunk, or had a drug or alcohol related accident or injury?Have you slept in your car, or away from home because you were too drunk to drive?Are you relieved when someone else drives so you are free to drink?||Drinking and driving indicates powerlessness over use, and is a part of the unmanageability of active alcohol dependency.|
|Have you ever stopped or cut back on drinking because you felt it was causing problems in your life?||Life difficulties caused by alcohol indicate a problem – many alcoholics temporarily modify their patterns of using in an effort to prove to themselves that they have control of their use. Non-alcoholics don’t need to prove they are in control!|
|Is your life increasingly chaotic and turbulent?||Unmanageability is indicated by accidents, missed appointments, unpaid / late bills and rent, work, school, and relationship difficulties, a generalized sense of desperation, and pervasive sadness or anger. A life out of control is often traceable to the progression of alcohol dependency. Addicts typically project their unmanageability outward – blaming everything but the alcohol dependency for their problems.|
|Do you change drinks in an effort to regain control?||Switch from Scotch to Beer? Stop drinking but start taking pills? Give up marijuana but start drinking? Quit drinking but become sexually promiscuous? This is called cross addiction.|
|Do you believe you’re not an addict because your drug of choice is legal or prescribed?||Go ask Elvis about this one! Many medical doctors are shockingly unaware of alcohol dependency issues, and of the addictive nature of many commonly prescribed drugs.|
This information is taken from Virginia Tech Alcohol Abuse Prevention website.
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